英文文法 – 分詞 (現在分詞 & 過去分詞)

分詞是由動詞變化而來,可分為現在分詞(Ving)與過去分詞(Ven)。分詞可具有形容詞功用,以修飾名詞或作補語;分詞亦可作副詞,以修飾動詞或整個子句。


1. 分詞當形容詞,以修飾名詞或當補語,可分為下列幾種情況:

(a)Ving + N
  Ven + N
這種結構分詞是修飾後面的名詞,表達主動或進行用現在分詞,表達被動或完成用過去分詞。

例:1. He told us some frightening stories. (令人害怕的,表示主動)。

2. The wounded soldier was taken off to hospital. (受傷的,表示被動)。

3. A rolling stone gathers no moss. (滾石不生苔) (滾動的,表示進行)。

4. He threw away the broken chair. (破的,表示完成)。

上列結構要判斷主動被動,進行完成,通常要拉後面名詞與分詞的關係。

上列各句的分詞結構可作適度轉換:

frightening stories = stories which are frightening

the wounded soldier = the soldier who was wounded

a rolling stone = a stone which is rolling

the broken chair = the chair which has broken.

(b)N + Ving
   N + Ven
這種結構分詞置於名詞的後面,通常是由形容詞子句簡化而成的分詞片語。主動語態用現在分詞(Ving),被動語態用過去分詞(Ven)。

例:1. The girl wearing a hat is Mary. (a hat為名詞片語,故前面分詞應為主動語態)
= The girl who is wearing a hat is Mary.

2. It is a famous book written by Henry James. (by得知為被動)
= It is a famous book which was written by Henry James.

3. The bridge built in 1910 was torn down. (拉build與bridge之關係,得知為被動)
= The bridge which was built in 1910 was torn down.

再度提醒您,上列分詞結構一定要懂得判斷主動被動。

(c)   be
  S+ feel            + Ving / Ven 
     become
這種結構的分詞是由情緒動詞變化而來的,

若用事物作主詞,表達“令人‥”則為主動觀念,用現在分詞(Ving);

若用人作主詞,表達“感到‥”則為被動觀念,用過去分詞(Ven)。

例:1. We are surprised at the result.

2. After a long day’s work, John felt exhausted. (精疲力盡的)

3. The movie was exciting.

4. His stories are always interesting.

註:這類情緒動詞尚包括tire(疲倦), confuse(困惑), puzzle(困惑), fascinate(吸引), disappoint(失望), touch(感動), move(感動), embarrass(困窘), frighten(驚嚇)等。

2. 分詞當副詞,以修飾動詞或整個子句,主動語態用現在分詞,被動語態則用過去分詞。


(a) Ving, S + VP
      Ven, S + VP
此種結構分詞是修飾後面整個子句。

例:1. Writing a letter, he heard somebody coming. (關鍵在a letter為名詞片語,故為主動觀念,用現在分詞)

2. Frightened by the explosion(爆炸聲),the children began to cry. (關鍵在by,故用過去分詞)

3. Walking on the street, I met John. (本句walking後面沒有名詞片語,也沒有by,故拉主詞I與walk之關係,得知應為主動觀念,故用現在分詞)

4. Written in simple English, the book soon became popular. (拉book與write之關係)。

(b)  S+ V+ Ving
  S+ V+Ven
此種結構分詞用來修飾動詞,判斷的關鍵亦在主動被動的觀念。

例:1. The woman came here wearing a red hat.

2. My friend entered the room singing and laughing.

 

Author: POKUYO

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