英文文法 – 情態助動詞 English Grammar Modal Verbs

英文文法的情態助動詞

情態助動詞包含 can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would。

Part I 介紹情態助動詞禮貌請求及表示態度。

 

Part II 介紹情態助動詞肯定程度及進行式。

 

助動詞是要幫助動詞表達不同的語氣,在結構上助動詞後面應接原形動詞。

以下即精要地介紹關於助詞的重點:
1. 一般性的助動詞:

a) shall與will表達“將要”(shall通常用於第一人稱I, we,而will則可用於任何人稱)

b)can表達“能夠”,“可能”,“可以”

c)may表達“也許”,“可以”;d)must表達“必頇”、“一定”

例:1. My father could speak three languages. (能夠)

2. You have been working all day;you must be tired. (一定)

3. Mike might not be in the living room. (也許)

4. When she returns, she will telephone me. (將會)

2. 常考的助動詞句型:

a)對目前事情的猜測,表達“現在也許”,

“現在可能”用might+原形動詞或could+原形動詞,

若是對過去的猜測,則用might+ have+ p.p.或could+ have+ p.p.

 

b)表達“現在一定是”用must+原形動詞,

表達“過去一定是”則用must+ have+ p.p.,這種結構也是猜測,不過語氣很強;

表達“目前應該這樣但並沒有這樣”用should+原形動詞,

若表達過去則用should+ have+ p.p.

例:

1. A:I can’t find my purse.
B:You could (might) have left it at home.

2. David passed the examination;he must have studied hard.

3. The phone is ringing;it could (might) be John.

4. The price is wrong;it should be $1000, not $1500.

5. They should have arrived here an hour ago, but they didn’t.

3. 其它重要的助動詞:
a) need:need可作助動詞,其結構為“need+原形動詞”,亦可作一般動詞,結構為“need to+原形動詞”,need若當一般動詞,則要考慮到第三人稱單數要加s。

另外,need+ Ving表達“需要被‥”,請注意,這種結構一定是表達被動的意思。

例:1. He needs to finish it as soon as possible. (一般動詞)

2. We needn’t hurry. (助動詞)

3. The patient needs taking care of. (需要被照顧)

4. The car needs repairing. (需要被修理)

b) mustn’t表“不可以”,needn’t表達“不需要”,“不必”

例:1. It’s a secret;you mustn’t tell other people.

2. You needn’t come if you don’t want to.

c) ought to = should = be supposed to (應該)

例:1. People ought not to smoke in public.

2. You are supposed to get up early for the five o’clock train.

d) would rather:表達“寧願”,通常用的結構為“would rather A than B”,

非常重要的是A與B要用原形動詞來平行。

例:1. I would rather drink tea.

2. I would rather walk than take a taxi.

e) had better+原形動詞:表達“最好‥”

例:1. It’s getting dark;we had better leave.

2. You had better not be late.

f) used to+原形動詞:表達“過去習慣於”,

若表達至今還存在的習慣則用be (get) used (accustomed) to+ Ving或NP。

例:1. After dinner, Frank used to take a walk.

2. My grandfather is used to getting up early and doing exercise.

3. I expect we will get used to the busy life.

註:若“be used to”表達“被使用來‥”,則to為不定詞,應接原形動詞。
例:1. Wind can be used to produce electricity.

Author: POKUYO

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