英文文法 – 比較級 & 最高級

比較的句型


1. 原級比較:

(a) 肯定:A+ V+ as+ adj./adv./ many +複數名詞+as +B (A像B那樣…)
A+ V+ as+ adj./adv./ much +單數名詞+as +B (A像B那樣…)


(b) 否定:A+ V+ not as+ adj./adv./ many+複數名詞+as+ B (A不像B那樣…)
      A+ V+ not so + adj./adv./ many+單數名詞+as+ B (A不像B那樣…)

例:1. He works as hard as I.

2. This book is not so interesting as that one.

3. I don’t have so much money as my brother.

請注意:肯定只能用“as…as”,不能用“so…as”。

2. 比較級:

(a) 肯定:A+ V+ more+ adj或adv+ than+ B (A比B還…)
A+ V+ adj+ er或adv+ er+than+ B (A比B還…)
(b) 否定:A+ V+ less+ adj或adv+ than+ B (A比B還不…)

例:1. Steve runs faster than John.

2. Nothing is more important than water.

3. This sentence looks less easy than that one.

請注意:比較級要用than當連接詞,形容詞或副詞若可以加er尌不能再用more,而less後面的形容詞或副詞一律用原級。


3. 最高級:

(a) 肯定:S+ V+ the most+ adj或adv+ in/of/among + 名詞片語 (最…)

(b) 否定:S+ V+ the least+ adj或adv+ in/of /among+名詞片語 (最不…)

例:1. He is the most famous of all the painters.
= of all the painters he is the most famous.

2. Robert is the tallest among his classmates.
= Among his classmates Robert is the tallest.

3. He is the least known(最不出名) of the modern poets.
= Of the modern poets he is the least known.

請注意下列要點:
1. 形容詞或副詞若可以加est,尌不能再用most。
2. 最高級是指三者以上,故介系詞後用的名詞應用複數。
3. 最高級後面的介系詞片語常常可以移至句首。

4. A+ be junior to+ B (A比B還年青)

A+ be senior to+ B (A比B還年長)

A+ be superior+ to+ B (A比B還優越)

A+ be inferior to+ B (A在B還差)

A+ be prior to+ B (A在B之前)

A+ be posterior to+ B (A在B之後
)
上列結構本身即比較的意思,故不能再加more,且因有to,故不可再加than。

5. The+比較級+S+ V,the+比較級+S+ V:表達“愈…尌愈”。

例:1. The greater the gains(利潤) are, the higher the riske(風隩) are.

2. The higher the mountain is, the colder it is.

6. 倍數:
(a) A+ V+倍數+as many/much as+ B’s

= A+ V+倍數+the number/amount of+ B’s

(表達“A剛好是B數倍”,可數用many, number,不可數用much, amount)

(b) A+ V+倍數+more than+ B’s (表達“A超出B的數倍以上”)

例:1. My money is three times as much as yours.

2. My money is three times the amount of yours.

3. My books are three times more than yours.

7. 比較級可以加er,最高級可以加est的形容詞與副詞:

(a) 單音節皆可,如long, short, great, high, strong, weak, young, light等等。
(b) 雙音節則以少許由y結尾者,如happy, early, angry, lazy, pretty, wealthy等。


比較的平行、加強比較的用字、 比較的倒裝、比較的累贅

1. 比較的平行:兩者相比時結構與語意上皆要考慮平行對稱。

例:1. John thinks that swimming is much more interesting than studying.

2. His works are as famous as his master’s.

3. The library in the present is bigger than that in the past. (本句that指the library)

2. 加強比較的用字:加強形容詞與副詞的原級用so, too, very等字,若加強比較級則用much, far,或a little等字。

例:1. It’s very warm today.

2. The film itself is much better than the book.

3. 比較的累贅:可以加er的比較級若再加more,或可以加est的最高級若再加most,皆形成累贅。

請訂正下列劃線部份:
1. Her clothes are more better than Mary’s. (去掉more)

2. It is the most biggest hotel in New York. (去掉most)

4. 比較的倒裝:A+ V1+as…+as+ B+ V2
A+ V1+more…than+ B+ V2

上列結構中V2有三項要點:
(a)V2與V1要一致,V1用be動詞則V2亦用be動詞,V1用助動詞V2亦用同樣的助動詞,V1若為一般動詞則V2用do, does或did代替,此外,V2與V1在時態上也要一致
(b)V2可倒裝,但亦可不倒裝
(c)V2可以省略

例:1. Country children can read as quickly as city children can.
= Country children can read as quickly as can city children.
= Country children can read as quickly as city children.

2. The Polynesians love the sea as much as the Indians do.
= The Polynesians love the sea as much as do the Indians.
= The Polynesians love the sea as much as the Indians.

Author: POKUYO

發表迴響